PIE *gene-). For sense evolution, see cochineal
. Cf. O.C.S. čruminu, Rus. čermnyj "red," from the same source. Cf. also vermilion
. The insect (Kermes vermilio) lives on the Kermes oak. The insects were gathered commercially in Mediterranean countries and sold throughout Europe. Kermes dyes have been found in burial wrappings in Anglo-Scandinavian York. It fell out of use with the introduction of cochineal. The dyes were comparable in quality and color intensity, but ten to twelve times as much kermes was needed to produce the same effect as cochineal.