crusades

crusade

[kroo-seyd]
noun
1.
(often initial capital letter) any of the military expeditions undertaken by the Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
2.
any war carried on under papal sanction.
3.
any vigorous, aggressive movement for the defense or advancement of an idea, cause, etc.: a crusade against child abuse.
verb (used without object), crusaded, crusading.
4.
to go on or engage in a crusade.

Origin:
1570–80; earlier crusada < Spanish cruzada; replacing croisade < Middle French. See cross, -ade1

crusader, noun
noncrusading, adjective
post-Crusade, adjective
pre-Crusade, adjective
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
crusade (kruːˈseɪd)
 
n
1.  (often capital) any of the military expeditions undertaken in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by the Christian powers of Europe to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims
2.  (formerly) any holy war undertaken on behalf of a religious cause
3.  a vigorous and dedicated action or movement in favour of a cause
 
vb
4.  to campaign vigorously for something
5.  to go on a crusade
 
[C16: from earlier croisade, from Old French crois cross, from Latin crux; influenced also by Spanish cruzada, from cruzar to take up the cross]
 
cru'sader
 
n

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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

crusade
1706, respelling of croisade (1577), from M.Fr. croisade, Sp. cruzada, both from M.L. cruciata, pp. of cruciare "to mark with a cross," from L. crux (gen. crucis) "cross." Figurative sense of "campaign against a public evil" is from 1786.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary

Crusades definition


A series of wars fought from the late eleventh through the thirteenth centuries, in which European kings and warriors set out to gain control of the lands in which Jesus lived, known as the Holy Land. At that time, these areas were held by Muslims. The Crusaders conquered Jerusalem in 1099 but failed to secure the Holy Land, and they were driven out by the late thirteenth century. Nevertheless, the Crusades had several lasting results, including the exposure of Europeans to the goods, technology, and customs of Asia.

Note: The Crusades left a legacy of bitterness against Europeans and Christians among Muslims.
The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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