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city, southwestern Ukraine, situated on the upper Prut River in the Carpathian foothills. First documentary reference to Chernivtsi dates from c. 1408, when it was a town in Moldavia and the chief centre of the area known as Bukovina. Chernivtsi later passed to the Turks and then in 1774 to Austria. After World War I, it was ceded to Romania, and in 1940 the town was acquired by the U.S.S.R. Always a major focus of trade, it grew in the early 20th century as an industrial centre and an important railway junction, with lines to Lviv, Ternopil, Moldova, and Romania. Industries have included woolen and cotton textile processing, light engineering, food processing (especially meat and sugar), and timberworking. Chernivtsi stretches for more than 7 miles (11 km) along the Prut, and new suburbs have grown up on the low left bank. It has a university, founded in 1875, and a medical institute. Historically, the city's population has been a mixture of Ukrainians, Romanians, Jews, Germans, and Armenians; today the city is inhabited mainly by Ukrainians, although there are significant Romanian and Russian minorities. Pop. (2001) 240,621; (2005 est.) 242,250.