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art of encrusting gold, silver, or copper wire on the surface of iron, steel, bronze, or brass. A narrow undercut is made in the surface of the metal with a chisel and the wire forced into the undercut by means of a hammer. The name is derived from the city of Damascus, which was celebrated for its damascened wares as early as the 12th century. The armourers of northern Italy used damascening to decorate their products during the 16th century. In the 19th century the art underwent a revival in Europe, particularly in France and Spain. Damascened work of high quality is still produced by craftsmen there and in Egypt and Iran.