verb (used with object)
to pour (wine or other liquid) gently so as not to disturb the sediment.
to pour (a liquid) from one container to another.

1625–35; < Medieval Latin dēcanthāre, equivalent to Latin dē- de- + Medieval Latin canth(us) spout, rim of a vessel (Latin: iron band round a wheel < Greek kánthos corner of the eye, tire) + -āre infinitive suffix

decantation [dee-kan-tey-shuhn] , noun Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
decant (dɪˈkænt)
1.  to pour (a liquid, such as wine) from one container to another, esp without disturbing any sediment
2.  (tr) to rehouse (people) while their homes are being rebuilt or refurbished
[C17: from Medieval Latin dēcanthāre, from canthus spout, rim; see canthus]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

1630s, "pour off the clear liquid from a solution by gently tipping the vessel," originally an alchemical term, from Fr. decanter, from M.L. decanthare, from canthus "corner, lip of a jug," from Gk. kanthos "corner of the eye," on a perceived resemblance between the beaked lip of a jug and the corner
of the eye.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
Take care to avoid, as much as feasible, the decantation of coarser particles
  of the sample.
Deposits containing aggregates which display a history of coating problems
  require decantation.
Wash the resin repeatedly by decantation until the supernatant water is free of
  foam and turbidity.
Care should be taken to avoid, as much as possible, the decantation of the
  coarse particles of the sample.
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