[des-il, -ahyl]
noun Statistics.
one of the values of a variable that divides the distribution of the variable into ten groups having equal frequencies.

1880–85; dec- + -ile Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
decile (ˈdɛsɪl, -aɪl)
 a.  See also percentile one of nine actual or notional values of a variable dividing its distribution into ten groups with equal frequencies: the ninth decile is the value below which 90% of the population lie
 b.  a tenth part of a distribution
[C17: from deca- + -ile]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

1670s in astrology; 1882 in statistics; from M.L. *decilis, from decem "ten" on the model of quintilis, sextilis.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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