a person or thing that decomposes.
Ecology. an organism, usually a bacterium or fungus, that breaks down the cells of dead plants and animals into simpler substances.

1815–25; decompose + -er1 Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
decomposer (ˌdiːkəmˈpəʊzə)
ecology consumer See also producer any organism in a community, such as a bacterium or fungus, that breaks down dead tissue enabling the constituents to be recycled to the environment

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

1833, "a decomposing agent," agent noun from decompose.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
decomposer   (dē'kəm-pō'zər)  Pronunciation Key 
See detritivore.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
Nutritional requirements of microbial decomposers are met by the contents of
  the debris and the soil.
They propose that a reduction in litter quality will result in nutrient
  limitations of decomposers.
Consequently nutrients may be immobilised in decomposer biomass.
Design concept of a windowed cadmium oxide decomposer integrated with molten
  cadmium quenching of decomposed cadmium vapor.
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