gemeente (municipality) and port, northwestern Netherlands, at the northern end of the North Holland Canal, opposite Texel Island on the Marsdiep, a channel linking the North Sea and Waddenzee. Offshore, in 1673, a Dutch fleet under Adm. Michiel A. de Ruyter and Cornelis Tromp defeated an Anglo-French fleet. In 1794 a French cavalry troop captured a Dutch fleet icebound in the Marsdiep, and in 1799 Den Helder was the site of the Russo-British troop landing that began an unsuccessful campaign to overthrow the Batavian Republic. It was a fishing village until strongly fortified by Napoleon in 1811. Den Helder later served as foreport for Amsterdam, a position it yielded to IJmuiden after the opening of the North Sea Canal (1876). It is now the main Dutch naval base and site of the Royal Naval College and the Admiralty Palace. There are also fishery, zoological, and meteorological institutes; several museums; and a wildlife preserve. In addition to fishing, economic activities include shipbuilding and tourism. The harbour is protected by a granite dike 6 miles (10 km) long. Pop. (2007 est.) 58,227.
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