destructive-distillation

destructive distillation

noun Chemistry.
the decomposition of a substance, as wood or coal, by heating with a minimal exposure to air, and the collection of the volatile products formed.

Origin:
1825–35

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Collins
World English Dictionary
destructive distillation
 
n
the decomposition of a complex substance, such as wood or coal, by heating it in the absence of air and collecting the volatile products

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
destructive distillation   (dĭ-strŭk'tĭv)  Pronunciation Key 
A process by which organic substances such as wood, coal, and oil shale are broken down by heat in the absence of air. This causes them to break down into solids, liquids, and gases, which are then used to make products such as coke, charcoal, oils, and ammonia.
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