Diabetes Mellitus

diabetes

[dahy-uh-bee-tis, -teez]
noun Pathology.
1.
any of several disorders characterized by increased urine production.
2.
Also called diabetes mellitus [mel-i-tuhs, muh-lahy-] . a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, usually occurring in genetically predisposed individuals, characterized by inadequate production or utilization of insulin and resulting in excessive amounts of glucose in the blood and urine, excessive thirst, weight loss, and in some cases progressive destruction of small blood vessels leading to such complications as infections and gangrene of the limbs or blindness.
3.
Also called type 1 diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes, juvenile diabetes. a severe form of diabetes mellitus in which insulin production by the beta cells of the pancreas is impaired, usually resulting in dependence on externally administered insulin, the onset of the disease typically occurring before the age of 25.
4.
Also called type 2 diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, adult-onset diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes. a mild, sometimes asymptomatic form of diabetes mellitus characterized by diminished tissue sensitivity to insulin and sometimes by impaired beta cell function, exacerbated by obesity and often treatable by diet and exercise.
5.
Also called diabetes insipidus [in-sip-i-duhs] . increased urine production caused by inadequate secretion of vasopressin by the pituary gland.

Origin:
1555–65; < Neo-Latin, Latin < Greek, equivalent to diabē- (variant stem of diabaínein to go through, pass over, equivalent to dia- dia- + baínein to pass) + -tēs agent suffix

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World English Dictionary
diabetes (ˌdaɪəˈbiːtɪs, -tiːz)
 
n
any of various disorders, esp diabetes mellitus, characterized by excretion of an abnormally large amount of urine
 
[C16: from Latin: siphon, from Greek, literally: a passing through (referring to the excessive urination), from diabainein to pass through, cross over; see diabase]

diabetes mellitus (məˈlaɪtəs)
 
n
IDDM See also NIDDM a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by excessive thirst and excretion of abnormally large quantities of urine containing an excess of sugar, caused by a deficiency of insulin
 
[C18: New Latin, literally: honey-sweet diabetes]

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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

diabetes
1560s, from L. diabetes, from Gk. diabetes "excessive discharge of urine," lit. "a passer-through, siphon," from diabainein "to pass through," from dia- "through" + bainein "to go" (see come). An old native name for it was pissing evil.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

diabetes di·a·be·tes (dī'ə-bē'tĭs, -tēz)
n.
Any of several metabolic disorders marked by excessive discharge of urine and persistent thirst, especially one of the two types of diabetes mellitus.

diabetes mellitus diabetes mel·li·tus (mə-lī'təs, měl'ĭ-)
n.

  1. A severe, chronic form of diabetes caused by insufficient production of insulin and resulting in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The disease typically appears in childhood or adolescence and is characterized by increased sugar levels in the blood and urine, excessive thirst, frequent urination, acidosis, and wasting. Also called insulin-dependent diabetes, type I diabetes.

  2. A mild form of diabetes that typically appears first in adulthood and is exacerbated by obesity and an inactive lifestyle. This disease often has no symptoms, is usually diagnosed by tests that indicate glucose intolerance, and is treated with changes in diet and an exercise regimen. Also called adult-onset diabetes, late-onset diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, type II diabetes.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
diabetes mellitus   (dī'ə-bē'tĭs mə-lī'təs, -tēz)  Pronunciation Key 
A metabolic disease characterized by abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood, caused by an inherited inability to produce insulin (Type 1) or an acquired resistance to insulin (Type 2). Type 1 diabetes, which typically appears in childhood or adolescence, is marked by excessive thirst, frequent urination, and weight loss and requires treatment with insulin injections. type 2 diabetes appears during adulthood, usually in overweight or elderly individuals, and is treated with oral medication or insulin. People with either type of diabetes benefit from dietary restriction of sugars and other carbohydrates. Uncontrolled blood glucose levels increase the risk for long-term medical complications including peripheral nerve disease, retinal damage, kidney disease, and progressive atherosclerosis caused by damage to endothelial cells in blood vessels, leading to coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease.
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Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary
diabetes mellitus [(deye-uh-bee-teez, deye-uh-bee-tuhs mel-uh-tuhs)]

A chronic disease in which carbohydrates cannot be metabolized properly (see metabolism) because the pancreas fails to secrete an adequate amount of insulin. Without enough insulin, carbohydrate metabolism is upset, and levels of sugar in the blood rise.

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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