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branch of psychology that deals with individual and group differences in behaviour. Charles Darwin's studies of the survival capabilities of different species and Sir Francis Galton's researches on individual visual and auditory skills, as well as more recent experiments, have shown that both individual and group differences are quantitative rather than qualitative. Persons do not fall into sharply separated types, such as bright and dull, maladjusted and normal, introvert and extravert. On the contrary, in all psychological characteristics, individuals vary by degree along a continuous scale. For most traits, the distribution approximates the bell-shaped normal probability curve, with the greatest clustering of cases near the centre of the range and a gradual decrease in numbers as the extremes are approached. Individual differences in behavioral characteristics are not limited to the human species; they occur throughout the animal scale. Investigations of animal behaviour, from unicellular organisms to anthropoid apes, reveal wide individual differences in learning, motivation, emotionality, and other traits. So large are these differences that the distributions overlap even when widely separated species are compared. See also comparative psychology.