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9 Grammatical Pitfalls

down1

[doun] /daʊn/
adverb
1.
from higher to lower; in descending direction or order; toward, into, or in a lower position:
to come down the ladder.
2.
on or to the ground, floor, or bottom:
He fell down.
3.
to or in a sitting or lying position.
4.
to or in a position, area, or district considered lower, especially from a geographical or cartographic standpoint, as to the south, a business district, etc.:
We drove from San Francisco down to Los Angeles.
5.
to or at a lower value or rate.
6.
to a lesser pitch or volume:
Turn down the radio.
7.
in or to a calmer, less active, or less prominent state:
The wind died down.
8.
from an earlier to a later time:
from the 17th century down to the present.
9.
from a greater to a lesser strength, amount, etc.:
to water down liquor.
10.
in an attitude of earnest application:
to get down to work.
11.
on paper or in a book:
Write down the address.
12.
in cash at the time of purchase; at once:
We paid $50 down and $20 a month.
13.
to the point of defeat, submission, inactivity, etc.:
They shouted down the opposition.
14.
in or into a fixed or supine position:
They tied down the struggling animal.
15.
to the source or actual position:
The dogs tracked down the bear.
16.
into a condition of ill health:
He's come down with a cold.
17.
in or into a lower status or condition:
kept down by lack of education.
18.
Nautical. toward the lee side, so as to turn a vessel to windward:
Put the helm down!
19.
Slang. on toast (as used in ordering a sandwich at a lunch counter or restaurant):
Give me a tuna down.
preposition
20.
in a descending or more remote direction or place on, over, or along:
They ran off down the street.
adjective
21.
downward; going or directed downward:
the down escalator.
22.
being at a low position or on the ground, floor, or bottom.
23.
toward the south, a business district, etc.
24.
associated with or serving traffic, transportation, or the like, directed toward the south, a business district, etc.:
the down platform.
25.
downcast; depressed; dejected:
You seem very down today.
26.
ailing, especially, sick and bedridden:
He's been down with a bad cold.
27.
being the portion of the full price, as of an article bought on the installment plan, that is paid at the time of purchase or delivery:
a payment of $200 down.
28.
Football. (of the ball) not in play.
29.
Slang.
  1. agreeing, supporting, or understanding: I'm totally down with that.
    He's down with those kids.
  2. sophisticated or hip; cool:
    That music is down.
30.
behind an opponent or opponents in points, games, etc.:
The team won the pennant despite having been down three games in the final week of play.
31.
Baseball. out.
32.
losing or having lost the amount indicated, especially at gambling:
After an hour at poker, he was down $10.
33.
having placed one's bet:
Are you down for the fourth race?
34.
finished, done, considered, or taken care of:
five down and one to go.
35.
out of order:
The computer has been down all day.
noun
36.
a downward movement; descent.
37.
a turn for the worse; reverse:
The business cycle experienced a sudden down.
38.
Football.
  1. one of a series of four plays during which a team must advance the ball at least 10 yards (9 meters) to keep possession of it.
  2. the declaring of the ball as down or out of play, or the play immediately preceding this.
39.
Slang. an order of toast at a lunch counter or restaurant.
40.
Slang. downer (defs 1a, b).
verb (used with object)
41.
to put, knock, or throw down; subdue:
He downed his opponent in the third round.
42.
to drink down, especially quickly or in one gulp:
to down a tankard of ale.
43.
Informal. to defeat in a game or contest:
The Mets downed the Dodgers in today's game.
44.
to cause to fall from a height, especially by shooting:
Antiaircraft guns downed ten bombers.
verb (used without object)
45.
to go down; fall.
interjection
46.
(used as a command to a dog to stop attacking, to stop jumping on someone, to get off a couch or chair, etc.):
Down, Rover!
47.
(used as a command or warning to duck, take cover, or the like):
Down! They're starting to shoot!
Idioms
48.
down and out, down-and-out.
49.
down cold / pat, mastered or learned perfectly:
Another hour of studying and I'll have the math lesson down cold.
50.
down in the mouth, discouraged; depressed; sad.
51.
down on, Informal. hostile or averse to:
Why are you so down on sports?
52.
down with!,
  1. away with! cease!:
    Down with tyranny!
  2. on or toward the ground or into a lower position:
    Down with your rifles!
Origin of down1
1100
before 1100; Middle English doune, Old English dūne, aphetic variant of adūne for of dūne off (the) hill; see a-2, down3
Related forms
undowned, adjective

die1

[dahy] /daɪ/
verb (used without object), died, dying.
1.
to cease to live; undergo the complete and permanent cessation of all vital functions; become dead.
2.
(of something inanimate) to cease to exist:
The laughter died on his lips.
3.
to lose force, strength, or active qualities:
Superstitions die slowly.
4.
to cease to function; stop:
The motor died.
5.
to be no longer subject; become indifferent:
to die to worldly matters.
6.
to pass gradually; fade or subside gradually (usually followed by away, out, or down):
The storm slowly died down.
7.
Theology. to lose spiritual life.
8.
to faint or languish.
9.
to suffer as if fatally:
I'm dying of boredom!
10.
to pine with desire, love, longing, etc.:
I'm dying to see my home again.
11.
to desire or want keenly or greatly:
I'm dying for a cup of coffee.
Verb phrases
12.
die away, (of a sound) to become weaker or fainter and then cease:
The hoofbeats gradually died away.
13.
die down, to become calm or quiet; subside.
14.
die off, to die one after another until the number is greatly reduced:
Her friends are dying off.
15.
die out,
  1. to cease to exist; become extinct:
    Both lines of the family died out before the turn of the century.
  2. to die away; fade; subside:
    The roar of the engines died out as the rocket vanished into the clouds.
Idioms
16.
die hard,
  1. to die only after a bitter struggle.
  2. to give way or surrender slowly or with difficulty:
    Childhood beliefs die hard.
17.
die standing up, Theater. (of a performance) to be received with silence rather than applause.
18.
never say die, never give up hope; never abandon one's efforts.
19.
to die for, stunning; remarkable:
That dress is to die for.
Origin
1150-1200; Middle English dien, deien < Old Norse deyja. Cf. dead, death
Synonyms
1. expire, depart. Die, pass away (pass on; pass ), perish mean to relinquish life. To die is to become dead from any cause and in any circumstances. It is the simplest, plainest, and most direct word for this idea, and is used figuratively of anything that has once displayed activity: An echo, flame, storm, rumor dies. Pass away (or pass on or pass ) is a commonly used euphemism implying a continuation of life after death: Grandfather passed away (passed on or passed ). Perish, a more literary term, implies death under harsh circumstances such as hunger, cold, neglect, etc.; figuratively, perish connotes utter extinction: Hardship caused many pioneers to perish. Ancient Egyptian civilization has perished.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2015.
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Examples from the web for downed
  • Mark downed game marking is the process of watching for a falling bird or multiple birds.
  • Once the game is downed the handler will command the dog to retrieve the game.
  • Hitting a downed fighter and grasping below the waist were prohibited.
British Dictionary definitions for downed

die1

/daɪ/
verb (mainly intransitive) dies, dying, died
1.
(of an organism or its cells, organs, etc) to cease all biological activity permanently: she died of pneumonia
2.
(of something inanimate) to cease to exist; come to an end: the memory of her will never die
3.
often foll by away, down, or out. to lose strength, power, or energy, esp by degrees
4.
often foll by away or down. to become calm or quiet; subside: the noise slowly died down
5.
to stop functioning: the engine died
6.
to languish or pine, as with love, longing, etc
7.
(usually foll by of) (informal) to be nearly overcome (with laughter, boredom, etc)
8.
(theol) to lack spiritual life within the soul, thus separating it from God and leading to eternal punishment
9.
(transitive) to undergo or suffer (a death of a specified kind) (esp in phrases such as die a saintly death)
10.
(foll by to) to become indifferent or apathetic (to): to die to the world
11.
(informal) never say die, never give up
12.
die hard, to cease to exist after resistance or a struggle: old habits die hard
13.
die in harness, to die while still working or active, prior to retirement
14.
be dying, foll by for or an infinitive. to be eager or desperate (for something or to do something): I'm dying to see the new house
15.
(informal) to die for, highly desirable: a salary to die for
See also dieback, die down, die out
Usage note
It was formerly considered incorrect to use the preposition from after die, but of and from are now both acceptable: he died of/from his injuries
Word Origin
Old English dīegan, probably of Scandinavian origin; compare Old Norse deyja, Old High German touwen

die2

/daɪ/
noun
1.
  1. a shaped block of metal or other hard material used to cut or form metal in a drop forge, press, or similar device
  2. a tool of metal, silicon carbide, or other hard material with a conical hole through which wires, rods, or tubes are drawn to reduce their diameter
2.
an internally-threaded tool for cutting external threads Compare tap2 (sense 6)
3.
a casting mould giving accurate dimensions and a good surface to the object cast See also die-cast
4.
(architect) the dado of a pedestal, usually cubic
5.
another name for dice (sense 2)
6.
as straight as a die, perfectly honest
7.
the die is cast, the decision that commits a person irrevocably to an action has been taken
Word Origin
C13 dee, from Old French de, perhaps from Vulgar Latin datum (unattested) a piece in games, noun use of past participle of Latin dare to play

down1

/daʊn/
preposition
1.
used to indicate movement from a higher to a lower position: they went down the mountain
2.
at a lower or further level or position on, in, or along: he ran down the street
adverb
3.
downwards; at or to a lower level or position: don't fall down
4.
(particle) used with many verbs when the result of the verb's action is to lower or destroy its object: pull down, knock down, bring down
5.
(particle) used with several verbs to indicate intensity or completion: calm down
6.
immediately: cash down
7.
on paper: write this down
8.
arranged; scheduled: the meeting is down for next week
9.
in a helpless position: they had him down on the ground
10.
  1. away from a more important place: down from London
  2. away from a more northerly place: down from Scotland
  3. (of a member of some British universities) away from the university; on vacation
  4. in a particular part of a country: down south
11.
(nautical) (of a helm) having the rudder to windward
12.
reduced to a state of lack or want: down to the last pound
13.
lacking a specified amount: at the end of the day the cashier was ten pounds down
14.
lower in price: bacon is down
15.
including all intermediate terms, grades, people, etc: from managing director down to tea-lady
16.
from an earlier to a later time: the heirloom was handed down
17.
to a finer or more concentrated state: to grind down, boil down
18.
(sport) being a specified number of points, goals, etc behind another competitor, team, etc: six goals down
19.
(of a person) being inactive, owing to illness: down with flu
20.
(functioning as imperative) (to dogs): down Rover!
21.
(functioning as imperative) down with, wanting the end of somebody or something: down with the king!
22.
(Austral & NZ) get down on something, to procure something, esp in advance of needs or in anticipation of someone else
adjective
23.
(postpositive) depressed or miserable
24.
(prenominal) of or relating to a train or trains from a more important place or one regarded as higher: the down line
25.
(postpositive) (of a device, machine, etc, esp a computer) temporarily out of action
26.
made in cash: a down payment
27.
down to, the responsibility or fault of: this defeat was down to me
28.
(informal) down with
  1. having a good understanding of: down with computers
  2. in agreement with: completely down with that idea
  3. enjoying mutual friendship and respect with: down with the kids
verb
29.
(transitive) to knock, push or pull down
30.
(intransitive) to go or come down
31.
(transitive) (informal) to drink, esp quickly: he downed three gins
32.
(transitive) to bring (someone) down, esp by tackling
noun
33.
(American football) one of a maximum of four consecutive attempts by one team to advance the ball a total of at least ten yards
34.
a descent; downward movement
35.
a lowering or a poor period (esp in the phrase ups and downs)
36.
(informal) have a down on, to bear ill will towards (someone or something)
Word Origin
Old English dūne, short for adūne, variant of of dūne, literally: from the hill, from of, off + dūn hill; see down3

down2

/daʊn/
noun
1.
the soft fine feathers with free barbs that cover the body of a bird and prevent loss of heat. In the adult they lie beneath and between the contour feathers
2.
another name for eiderdown (sense 1)
3.
(botany) a fine coating of soft hairs, as on certain leaves, fruits, and seeds
4.
any growth or coating of soft fine hair, such as that on the human face
Word Origin
C14: of Scandinavian origin; related to Old Norse dūnn

down3

/daʊn/
noun
1.
(archaic) a hill, esp a sand dune See also downs (sense 1), Downs (sense 1)
Word Origin
Old English dūn; related to Old Frisian dūne, Old Saxon dūna hill, Old Irish dūn fortress, Greek this sandbank; see dune, town

Down1

/daʊn/
noun
1.
a district of SE Northern Ireland, in Co Down. Pop: 65 195 (2003 est). Area: 649 sq km (250 sq miles)
2.
a historical county of SE Northern Ireland, on the Irish Sea: generally hilly, rising to the Mountains of Mourne: in 1973 it was replaced for administrative purposes by the districts of Ards, Banbridge, Castlereagh, Down, Newry and Mourne, North Down, and part of Lisburn. Area: 2466 sq km (952 sq miles)

Down2

/daʊn/
noun
1.
any of various lowland breeds of sheep, typically of stocky build and having dense close wool, originating from various parts of southern England, such as Oxford, Hampshire, etc See also Dorset Down
2.
another name for Hampshire Down
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for downed

down

adv.

late Old English shortened form of Old English ofdune "downwards," from dune "from the hill," dative of dun "hill" (see down (n.2)). A sense development peculiar to English.

Used as a preposition since c.1500. Sense of "depressed mentally" is attested from c.1600. Slang sense of "aware, wide awake" is attested from 1812. Computer crash sense is from 1965. As a preposition from late 14c.; as an adjective from 1560s. Down-and-out is from 1889, American English, from situation of a beaten prizefighter. Down home (adj.) is 1931, American English; down the hatch as a toast is from 1931; down to the wire is 1901, from horse-racing. Down time is from 1952. Down under "Australia and New Zealand" attested from 1886; Down East "Maine" is from 1825.

n.

"soft feathers," late 14c., from Old Norse dunn, perhaps ultimately from PIE root *dheu- (1) "to fly about (like dust), to rise in a cloud."

Old English dun "down, moor; height, hill, mountain," from Proto-Germanic *dunaz- (cf. Middle Dutch dunen "sandy hill," Dutch duin, "probably a pre-insular loan-word from Celtic" [Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names], in other words, borrowed at a very early period, before the Anglo-Saxon migration.

The non-English Germanic words tend to mean "dune, sand bank" (cf. dune), while the Celtic cognates tend to mean "hill, citadel" (cf. Old Irish dun "hill, hill fort;" Welsh din "fortress, hill fort;" and second element in place names London, Verdun, etc.).

From PIE root *dheue- "to close, finish, come full circle." Meaning "elevated rolling grassland" is from c.1300. German Düne, French dune, Italian, Spanish duna are said to be loan-words from Dutch.

v.

1560s, from down (adv.). Related: Downed; downing.

die

v.

mid-12c., possibly from Old Danish døja or Old Norse deyja "to die, pass away," both from Proto-Germanic *dawjanan (cf. Old Frisian deja "to kill," Old Saxon doian, Old High German touwen, Gothic diwans "mortal"), from PIE root *dheu- (3) "to pass away, become senseless" (cf. Old Irish dith "end, death," Old Church Slavonic daviti, Russian davit' "to choke, suffer").

It has been speculated that Old English had *diegan, from the same source, but it is not in any of the surviving texts and the preferred words were steorfan (see starve), sweltan (see swelter), wesan dead, also forðgan and other euphemisms.

Languages usually don't borrow words from abroad for central life experiences, but "die" words are an exception, because they are often hidden or changed euphemistically out of superstitious dread. A Dutch euphemism translates as "to give the pipe to Maarten." Regularly spelled dege through 15c., and still pronounced "dee" by some in Lancashire and Scotland. Used figuratively (of sounds, etc.) from 1580s. Related: Died; dies.

n.

early 14c. (as a plural, late 14c. as a singular), from Old French de "die, dice," of uncertain origin. Common Romanic (cf. Spanish, Portuguese, Italian dado, Provençal dat, Catalan dau), perhaps from Latin datum "given," past participle of dare (see date (n.1)), which, in addition to "give," had a secondary sense of "to play" (as a chess piece); or else from "what is given" (by chance or Fortune). Sense of "stamping block or tool" first recorded 1690s.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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downed in Medicine

die (dī)
v. died, dy·ing (dī'ĭng), dies

  1. To cease living; become dead; expire.

  2. To cease existing, especially by degrees; fade.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Slang definitions & phrases for downed

die

noun

To desire very strongly: She was dying to become Miss Pancake (1591+)

verb
  1. To laugh uncontrollably: When he puts a lampshade on his head you could die (1596+)
  2. To be left on base at the end of an inning (1908+ Baseball)
Related Terms

cross my heart


down

adjective
  1. Depressed; melancholy; blue: He's realdown about losing that chance (1645+)
  2. Depressing; pessimistic; dampening; downbeat: I don't see the point of making such a ''down'' picture (1950s+)
  3. Not functioning; on the blink: The power plant has been down for two months/ The computer's down again today (1970s+)
  4. Coolly cognizant; at ease in one's own skin; cool: To show how ''down'' you are to youthful consumers/ Of course if you are ''with it,'' you ''be down'' (1970s+)
  5. Excellent; good; profoundly satisfying (1950+ Jazz musicians)
  6. (also down-ass)Having special affinity; linked; in league •The term was strongly revived in the 1990s by black teenagers and street gangs: It wasn't her turf, but she wasn't down special with one gang/ You're down with the heavy metal crowd now/ I am probably one of the few down-ass females on his team/ You're down hard for the 'hood (1930s+ Jazz musicians)
  7. Finished; completed: one down and 30 to go
noun

downer (1960s+ Narcotics)

verb
  1. To eat or drink: I downed an enormous pizza (1860+)
  2. To criticize; complain of; PUT someone or something DOWN: My friends downed me for listening to country music (1960s+)
Related Terms

get down, go down on someone, look down on someone, the lowdown, low-down, meltdown, put-down, put someone down for something, up-and-down

[cool and teenager senses perhaps fr jazz musicians' terms like low down and down and dirty used to praise gutbucket and other jazz when especially well played]


The Dictionary of American Slang, Fourth Edition by Barbara Ann Kipfer, PhD. and Robert L. Chapman, Ph.D.
Copyright (C) 2007 by HarperCollins Publishers.
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Idioms and Phrases with downed

down

also see:
The American Heritage® Idioms Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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