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city, south-central Ukraine. It lies along the upper Inhul River where the latter is crossed by the Kremenchuk-Odessa railway. Founded as a fortress in 1754, it was made a city, Yelysavethrad (Russian: Yelizavetgrad, or Elizavetgrad), in 1765 and developed as the centre of a rich agricultural area. It was renamed Zinovyevsk in 1924, Kirovo in 1936, and Kirovohrad in 1939. Industries have included food processing and agricultural-machinery production. Kirovohrad has a teacher-training institute. Pop. (2001) 254,103; (2005 est.) 248,367.