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emerald

[em-er-uh ld, em-ruh ld] /ˈɛm ər əld, ˈɛm rəld/
noun
1.
a rare variety of beryl that is colored green by chromium and valued as a gem.
3.
Printing. (in Britain) a 6½-point type of a size between nonpareil and minion.
4.
Ornithology. any of numerous small bright green hummingbirds of the genus Chlorostilbon.
adjective
5.
having a clear, deep-green color.
Origin
1250-1300
1250-1300; Middle English emeraude, emeralde < Anglo-French, Old French esmeraude, esmeralde, esmeragde < Latin smaragdus < Greek smáragdos; probably ultimately < Semitic b-r-q shine (≫ Sanskrit marāk(a)la emerald)
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for emeralds

emerald

/ˈɛmərəld; ˈɛmrəld/
noun
1.
a green transparent variety of beryl: highly valued as a gem
2.
  1. the clear green colour of an emerald
  2. (as adjective): an emerald carpet
3.
(formerly) a size of printer's type approximately equal to 61/2 point
4.
short for emerald moth
Word Origin
C13: from Old French esmeraude, from Latin smaragdus, from Greek smaragdos; related to Sanskrit marakata emerald
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for emeralds

emerald

n.

"bright green precious stone," c.1300, emeraude, from Old French esmeraude (12c.), from Medieval Latin esmaraldus, from Latin smaragdus, from Greek smaragdos "green gem" (emerald or malachite), from Semitic baraq "shine" (cf. Hebrew bareqeth "emerald," Arabic barq "lightning").

Sanskrit maragdam "emerald" is from the same source, as is Persian zumurrud, whence Turkish zümrüd, source of Russian izumrud "emerald."

In early examples the word, like most other names of precious stones, is of vague meaning; the mediæval references to the stone are often based upon the descriptions given by classical writers of the smaragdus, the identity of which with our emerald is doubtful. [OED]
Emerald Isle for "Ireland" is from 1795.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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emeralds in Science
emerald
  (ěm'ər-əld)   
A transparent, green form of the mineral beryl. It is valued as a gem.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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emeralds in the Bible

Heb. nophek (Ex. 28:18; 39:11); i.e., the "glowing stone", probably the carbuncle, a precious stone in the breastplate of the high priest. It is mentioned (Rev. 21:19) as one of the foundations of the New Jerusalem. The name given to this stone in the New Testament Greek is smaragdos, which means "live coal."

Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary
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11
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