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1882, from epi- + dura (mater) (see dura mater). The noun meaning "injection into the epidural region" (usually during childbirth) is attested by 1970.
epidural ep·i·du·ral (ěp'ĭ-dur'əl, -dyur'-)adj. Located on or over the dura mater. n. An injection into the epidural space of the spine.