equivalence

[ih-kwiv-uh-luhns or for 3, ee-kwuh-vey-luhns]
noun Also, equivalency (for defs 1, 2).
1.
the state or fact of being equivalent; equality in value, force, significance, etc.
2.
an instance of this; an equivalent.
3.
Chemistry. the quality of having equal valence.
4.
Logic, Mathematics.
a.
Also called material implication. the relation between two propositions such that the second is not false when the first is true.
b.
Also called material equivalence. the relation between two propositions such that they are either both true or both false.
c.
the relation between two propositions such that each logically implies the other.
adjective
5.
(of a logical or mathematical relationship) reflexive, symmetrical, and transitive.

Origin:
1535–45; < Middle French < Medieval Latin aequivalentia, equivalent to Latin aequivalent- equivalent + -ia -ia; see -ence

nonequivalence, noun
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World English Dictionary
equivalence or equivalency (ɪˈkwɪvələns)
 
n
1.  the state of being equivalent or interchangeable
2.  maths, logic
 a.  the relationship between two statements, each of which implies the other
 b.  Also called: biconditional the binary truth-function that takes the value true when both component sentences are true or when both are false, corresponding to English if and only if. Symbol: ≡ or ↔, as in --(pq) ≡ --p ∨ --q
 
equivalency or equivalency
 
n

equivalency or equivalence (ˌɛkwɪˈveɪlənsɪ)
 
n
chem the state of having equal valencies
 
equivalence or equivalence
 
n
 
equi'valent or equivalence
 
adj

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

equivalence
1540s, from Fr. équivalence, from M.L. aequivalentia, from aequivalentem (see equivalent). Related: Equivalency (1530s).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
Written language is thus a point-to-point equivalence, to borrow a mathematical
  phrase, to its spoken counterpart.
Only the clerks know what is available, only they judge the equivalence and can
  give or take a few square meters here and there.
Harmonic quintessence and the formulation of a fundamental energy equivalence
  equation.
Capital and income are not taxed with any mathematical equivalence, and
  inflation is not directly addressed.
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