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espalier

[ih-spal-yer, -yey] /ɪˈspæl yər, -yeɪ/
noun
1.
a trellis or framework on which the trunk and branches of fruit trees or shrubs are trained to grow in one plane.
2.
a plant so trained.
verb (used with object)
3.
to train on an espalier.
4.
to furnish with an espalier.
Origin
1655-1665
1655-65; < French, Middle French: trellis < Italian spalliera back rest, espalier, equivalent to spall(a) shoulder, support + -iera -ier2
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for espaliers'

espalier

/ɪˈspæljə/
noun
1.
an ornamental shrub or fruit tree that has been trained to grow flat, as against a wall
2.
the trellis, framework, or arrangement of stakes on which such plants are trained
3.
the method used to produce such plants
verb
4.
(transitive) to train (a plant) on an espalier
Word Origin
C17: from French: trellis, from Old Italian: shoulder supports, from spalla shoulder, from Late Latin spatula
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin and History for espaliers'

espalier

n.

1660s, from French espalier (16c.), from Italian spalliera "stake-works shoulder-high," from spalla "shoulder," from Latin spatula (see spatula).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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