and others; and so forth; and so on (used to indicate that more of the same sort or class might have been mentioned, but for brevity have been omitted): He had dogs, cats, guinea pigs, frogs, et cetera, as pets. Abbreviation: etc.
1100–50; late Old English
, a Latin phrase, appears in English writing most frequently in its abbreviated form, etc
. This phrase is used frequently in technical and business writing, somewhat less frequently in general informal writing, and sometimes in literary or formal writing. Expressions such as and so forth
and and so on
are useful substitutes. Because “and” is included in the meaning of et cetera
, the expression and et cetera
Pronunciations with [k] /k/ Show IPA
substituted for the first [t] /t/ [ek-set-er-uh] /ɛkˈsɛt ər ə/ or [ek-se-truh] /ɛkˈsɛ trə/ although occasionally used by educated speakers, are usually considered nonstandard.