(used in introducing a subordinate clause, which is often marked by ellipsis) notwithstanding that; in spite of the fact that; although: Though he tried very hard, he failed the course.
even if; granting that (often preceded by even ).
for all that; however.
as though, as if: It seems as though the place is deserted.

1150–1200; Middle English thoh < Old Norse thō (earlier *thauh); replacing Old English thēah; cognate with German doch, Gothic thauh

Among some conservatives there is a traditional objection to the use of though in place of although as a conjunction. However, the latter (earlier all though) was originally an emphatic form of the former, and there is nothing in contemporary English usage to justify such a distinction. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
though (ðəʊ)
1.  (sometimes preceded by even) despite the fact that: though he tries hard, he always fails; poor though she is, her life is happy
2.  as though as if: he looked as though he'd seen a ghost
3.  nevertheless; however: he can't dance: he sings well, though
[Old English theah; related to Old Frisian thāch, Old Saxon, Old High German thōh, Old Norse thō]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Main Entry:  even though
Part of Speech:  adv, conj's 21st Century Lexicon
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Word Origin & History

c.1200, from O.E. þeah, and in part from O.N. þo "though," both from P.Gmc. *thaukh (cf. Goth. þauh, O.Fris. thach, M.Du., Du. doch, O.H.G. doh, Ger. doch), from PIE demonstrative pronoun *to- (see that). The evolution of the terminal sound did not follow
laugh, tough, etc., though a tendency to end the word in "f" existed c.1300-1750 and persists in dialects.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
But he doesn't call it barbecue, even though you probably will once you taste
It ought not to look overelaborate, even though it is spangled with silver or
  crystal or is made of sheer lace.
After all, even though they are friendly and you have the inside track, they
  are still free to not consider you.
They both are stressful even though they are good things.
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