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short tale originally incorporated by a medieval preacher into his sermon to emphasize a moral or illustrate a point of doctrine. Fables, folktales, and legends were gathered into collections, such as Exempla (c. 1200) by Jacques de Vitry, for the use of preachers. Such exempla often provided the germ or plot for medieval secular tales in verse or prose. The influence of exempla can be seen in Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1387-1400) in the haunting "The Pardoner's Tale."