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external

[ik-stur-nl] /ɪkˈstɜr nl/
adjective
1.
of or pertaining to the outside or outer part; outer:
an external surface.
2.
Medicine/Medical. to be applied to the outside of a body, as a remedy:
for external use only.
3.
situated or being outside something; acting or coming from without:
external influences.
4.
pertaining to the outward or visible appearance or show:
external acts of worship.
5.
pertaining to or concerned with foreign countries:
external affairs; external commerce.
6.
Zoology, Anatomy. on the side farthest from the body, the median line, or the center of a radially symmetrical form.
7.
Metaphysics. of or pertaining to the world of things, considered as independent of the perceiving mind:
external world.
noun
8.
the outside; outer surface; exterior.
9.
something that is external.
10.
externals, external features, circumstances, etc.; outward appearance; superficialities.
Origin
late Middle English
1375-1425
1375-1425; late Middle English; see extern, -al1
Related forms
externally, adverb
nonexternal, adjective, noun
nonexternally, adverb
quasi-external, adjective
quasi-externally, adverb
semiexternal, adjective
semiexternally, adverb
subexternal, adjective
subexternally, adverb
Can be confused
Synonyms
1. outermost, exterior.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for externals

external

/ɪkˈstɜːnəl/
adjective
1.
of, situated on, or suitable for the outside; outer
2.
coming or acting from without: external evidence from an independent source
3.
of or involving foreign nations; foreign
4.
of, relating to, or designating a medicine that is applied to the outside of the body
5.
(anatomy) situated on or near the outside of the body: the external ear
6.
(education) denoting assessment by examiners who are not employed at the candidate's place of study
7.
(Austral & NZ) (of a student) studying a university subject extramurally
8.
(philosophy) (of objects, etc) taken to exist independently of a perceiving mind
noun
9.
(often pl) an external circumstance or aspect, esp one that is superficial or inessential
10.
(Austral & NZ) a student taking an extramural subject
Derived Forms
externally, adverb
Word Origin
C15: from Latin externus outward, from exterus on the outside, from ex out of
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for externals

external

adj.

early 15c. (implied in externalle), from Middle French externe or directly from Latin externus "outside, outward" (from exterus; see exterior) + -al (1). This version won out over exterial. Related: Externally.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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externals in Medicine

external ex·ter·nal (ĭk-stûr'nəl)
adj.
Abbr. ext.
Relating to, connected with, or existing on the outside; exterior.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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16
18
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