extrapolate

[ik-strap-uh-leyt]
verb (used with object), extrapolated, extrapolating.
1.
to infer (an unknown) from something that is known; conjecture.
2.
Statistics. to estimate (the value of a variable) outside the tabulated or observed range.
3.
Mathematics. to estimate (a function that is known over a range of values of its independent variable) to values outside the known range.
verb (used without object), extrapolated, extrapolating.
4.
to perform extrapolation.

Origin:
1825–35; extra- + (inter)polate

extrapolation, noun
extrapolative, extrapolatory [ik-strap-uh-luh-tawr-ee, -tohr-ee] , adjective
extrapolator, noun
overextrapolation, noun

deduction, extrapolation, induction, generalization, hypothesis.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
extrapolate (ɪkˈstræpəˌleɪt)
 
vb
1.  maths Compare interpolate to estimate (a value of a function or measurement) beyond the values already known, by the extension of a curve
2.  to infer (something not known) by using but not strictly deducing from the known facts
 
[C19: extra- + -polate, as in interpolate]
 
extrapo'lation
 
n
 
ex'trapolative
 
adj
 
ex'trapolatory
 
adj
 
ex'trapolator
 
n

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

extrapolate
1874, a back formation from extrapolation. Said in earliest reference to be "an expression of Sir George Airy" (18011892), English mathematician and astronomer. Related: Extrapolated; extrapolating.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
extrapolate   (ĭk-strāp'ə-lāt')  Pronunciation Key 
To estimate the value of a quantity that falls outside the range in which its values are known.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
And when that happens, the futurologists aren't far behind, extrapolating and
  predicting the way things will be.
Any set of predictions depends on some mix of extrapolating from current trends
  and hypothesizing newer directions.
But there's more to harnessing an army of computers than testing a hypothesis
  or extrapolating real-world observations.
My optimism stems merely from extrapolating the present growth rate of computer
  technology.
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