extrema

[ik-stree-muh]
noun
Mathematics. plural of extremum.
Dictionary.com Unabridged

extremum

[ik-stree-muhm]
noun, plural extrema [ik-stree-muh] . Mathematics.
a maximum or minimum value of a function in a specified neighborhood.

Origin:
1900–05; < Neo-Latin, noun use of neuter of Latin extrēmus extreme

Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Encyclopedia Britannica
Encyclopedia

extrema

in calculus, any point at which the value of a function is largest (a maximum) or smallest (a minimum). There are both absolute and relative (or local) maxima and minima. At a relative maximum the value of the function is larger than its value at immediately adjacent points, while at an absolute maximum the value of the function is larger than its value at any other point in the interval of interest. At relative maxima inside the interval, if the function is smooth rather than peaked, its rate of change, or derivative, is zero. The derivative may be zero, however, at a point where the function has neither a maximum nor a minimum, as in the case for the function x3 at x = 0. One way to determine this is by going back to the original definition and finding the value of the function at immediately adjacent points. For example, the function x3 - 3x has the derivative 3x2 - 3, which equals 0 when x is 1. By testing nearby points, such as 0.9 and 1.1, the function is seen to have a relative minimum when x is 1 and, similarly, a relative maximum when x is -1. There is also a second-derivative test: if the derivative of a function is zero at a point, then the function will have a relative maximum or minimum if the second derivative at that point is less than or greater than 0, respectively, the test failing if it equals 0. Relative maxima can also occur at points at which the derivative fails to exist, and these points must also be tested.

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Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
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Example sentences
One way it is different is that one only has to make statements about local extrema near the parameters of our universe.
Well, if a smooth function is non-monotonic, then this property only matters if the extrema can be crossed.
The e option causes extrema points to be printed on the brightest and darkest pixels of the input picture.
The second path deals with function as an object possessing various properties, such as extrema and continuity.
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