filter bed

noun
a pond or tank having a false bottom covered with sand and serving to filter river or pond waters.

Origin:
1870–75

Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
filter bed
 
n
1.  Compare bacteria bed a layer of sand or gravel in a tank or reservoir through which a liquid is passed so as to purify it
2.  any layer of material through which a liquid is passed so as to filter it

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Example sentences
Do not allow the septic tank to fill with solids to the point that they flow
  over into the rock-plant filter bed.
In placing the anthracite in the filters, extreme care shall be taken to avoid
  disturbing the gravel filter bed.
Dry water quality swale: consists of an open channel with a filter bed of
  permeable soils overlaying an underdrain system.
Wastewater is distributed over the top of the filter bed through which
  wastewater is trickled.
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