filter feeder

noun
an aquatic animal that feeds on particles or small organisms strained out of water by circulating them through its system: includes most of the stationary feeders, as clams, oysters, barnacles, corals, sea squirts, and sponges.

Origin:
1925–30

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Collins
World English Dictionary
filter feeding
 
n
zoology a method of feeding occurring in some aquatic animals, such as planktonic invertebrates and whalebone whales, in which minute food particles are filtered from the surrounding water
 
filter feeder
 
n

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
filter feeder  
An aquatic animal, such as a clam or sponge, that feeds by filtering tiny organisms or fine particles of organic material from currents of water that pass through it.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
The place for a filter feeder is out in the current.
Because this species is a filter feeder, numerous close-set gill rakers are
  found in the gill chamber.
The razor clam, a filter feeder, relies on plankton for food.
The purple bean is a filter feeder, taking algae and other microorganisms from
  the water column.
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