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means of warning in case of fire. Originally, watchmen provided the only fire-alarm system, but, with the advent of electric power, boxes wired to fire departments provided a warning system from city streets and such institutional buildings as schools. While some of the latter remain in use, most modern fire-alarm systems are automatic, consisting of thermostat-activated devices that at a certain temperature either sound an alarm or report to a central office, such as a municipal fire station. Some alarms are set to go off whenever the thermostat shows a rapid temperature rise. The thermostat is usually placed at or near the ceiling, where it will be most immediately affected by increase in temperature. Another type of alarm is actuated by a photoelectric cell; when smoke darkens the room slightly, the alarm is activated. One highly sensitive device contains a small amount of radioactive material that ionizes the air in a chamber. With this device a continuously applied voltage causes a small electrical current to flow through the ionized air, and when products of combustion enter, they reduce the current flow and activate the alarm