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city, seat (1891) of Coconino county, north-central Arizona, U.S. The San Francisco Peaks are immediately north of the city, which is encircled by the Coconino National Forest. Lumberjacks celebrating the 4th of July, 1876, nailed a U.S. flag to the top of a tall ponderosa pine and called the unnamed settlement Flagstaff. The city was founded in 1881. In 1882 the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad (later the Santa Fe) arrived and assured the community's growth. A timber-based economy still prevails, but the tourist industry, augmented by the area's scientific developments and the proximity of Glen Canyon Dam, are added economic assets; some five million visitors pass through the city each year. Nearby are the Arizona Snow Bowl (a winter ski resort), Meteor Crater (used as a training ground for astronauts), Painted Desert, Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument, Walnut Canyon National Monument, Grand Canyon National Park, and major Indian ruins. The city is an astronomical centre with the Perkins and U.S. Naval observatories, and Lowell Observatory, which is used for lunar mapping and was the site of the discovery of Pluto in 1930. Flagstaff is the site of Northern Arizona University (1966; founded 1899 as Northern Arizona Normal School), and the Museum of Northern Arizona (1928), a natural history museum. Inc. 1894. Pop. (1990) 45,857; (2000) 52,894.