a projecting rim, collar, or ring on a shaft, pipe, machine housing, etc., cast or formed to give additional strength, stiffness, or supporting area, or to provide a place for the attachment of other objects.
a broad ridge or pair of ridges projecting from the edge of a rolled metal shape generally at right angles, in order to strengthen or stiffen it.
a ring or collar, usually provided with holes for bolts, and screwed or welded over the end of a tube or pipe to permit other objects to be attached to it.
(in plumbing) a plate or flat ring bolted to the flange at the end of a length of pipe to close the end or to connect it with the flange of another such length: blind flange; spectacle flange.
verb (used without object), flanged, flanging.
to project like, or take the form of, a flange.

1425–75; late Middle English flaunche side charge (on shield face) < Middle French flanche, feminine of flanc flank

flangeless, adjective
flanger, noun
unflanged, adjective
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
flange (flændʒ)
1.  a projecting disc-shaped collar or rim on an object for locating or strengthening it or for attaching it to another object
2.  a flat outer face of a rolled-steel joist, esp of an I- or H-beam
3.  a tool for forming a flange
4.  (tr) to attach or provide (a component) with a flange
5.  (intr) to take the form of a flange
[C17: probably changed from earlier flaunche curved segment at side of a heraldic field, from French flancflank]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

1680s, perhaps related to O.Fr. flanche "flank, side," fem. of flanc (see flank).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

flange (flānj)

  1. A projecting rim or edge.

  2. The part of the denture base that extends from the cervical ends of the teeth to the border of the denture.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
But before it touches the truck someone notes that the locomotive's wheel
  flanges shouldn't carry the whole weight.
If not, a specially designed tool will be used to pry apart the top and bottom
Its tail bones each have a pair of unusual crescent-shaped flanges that
  protrude off to either side.
And since the wheel flanges would also still be firmly on the tracks, the car
  would remain traveling in a straight line.
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