foliation

[foh-lee-ey-shuhn]
noun
1.
the act or process of putting forth leaves.
2.
the state of being in leaf.
3.
Botany.
a.
the arrangement of leaves within a bud.
b.
the arrangement of leaves on a plant.
4.
leaves or foliage.
5.
Printing. the consecutive numbering of the folios or leaves, as distinguished from pages, of a manuscript or book.
6.
the total number of such leaves.
7.
Petrology. a form of lamination produced in rocks by metamorphism.
8.
ornamentation with foliage, or an arrangement of foliage.
9.
Architecture.
a.
ornamentation with foils.
b.
ornamentation with representations of foliage.
10.
formation into thin sheets.
11.
the application of foil to glass to make a mirror.

Origin:
1615–25; foliate + -ion

subfoliation, noun
superfoliation, noun
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
foliation (ˌfəʊlɪˈeɪʃən)
 
n
1.  botany
 a.  the process of producing leaves
 b.  the state of being in leaf
 c.  the arrangement of leaves in a leaf bud; vernation
2.  architect
 a.  ornamentation consisting of foliage
 b.  ornamentation consisting of cusps and foils
3.  any decoration with foliage
4.  the consecutive numbering of the leaves of a book
5.  geology the arrangement of the constituents of a rock in leaflike layers, as in schists

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

foliation
1620s, from Fr. foliation or directly from L. foliatus (see foliate).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
foliation   (fō'lē-ā'shən)  Pronunciation Key 
The set of layers visible in many metamorphic rocks as a result of the flattening and stretching of mineral grains during metamorphism.

foliated adjective
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
Yet given that you have made a choice of foliation you then put a flag at a
  point.
The rock has an internal grain, or foliation, that causes it to break easiest
  along one direction into flat slabs or sheets.
Foliation forms when pressure squeezes the flat or elongate minerals within a
  rock so they become aligned.
Gneiss displays a metamorphic rock feature called banding or foliation.
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