fractional distillation

noun Chemistry.
the separation of volatile components of different boiling points in a mixture by the gradual increase of temperature and the separate collection of each component.

Origin:
1855–60

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World English Dictionary
fractional distillation
 
n
1.  the process of separating the constituents of a liquid mixture by heating it and condensing separately the components according to their different boiling points
2.  a distillation in which the vapour is brought into contact with a countercurrent of condensed liquid to increase the purity of the final products

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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
fractional distillation  
A process by which a chemical compound is separated into components by distillation. In fractional distillation the compound is heated and, as each of its constituent components comes to a boil, its vapors are separated and cooled, so it can be removed in its pure form. Fractional distillation is used to refine petroleum. See also distillation.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
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Example sentences
The second way would simple or fractional distillation.
From an exhaustible source in our atmosphere, nitrogen gas can be obtained by
  liquefaction and fractional distillation.
Fractional distillation units are generally more expensive to operate and are
  generally better suited to larger volumes.
Petroleum distillates are mixtures of hydrocarbons which are obtained by
  fractional distillation of crude oil.
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