frankpledge

frankpledge

[frangk-plej]
noun Old English Law.
1.
a system of dividing a community into tithings or groups of ten men, each member of which was responsible for the conduct of the other members of his group and for the assurance that a member charged with a breach of the law would be produced at court.
2.
a member of a tithing.
3.
the tithing itself.

Origin:
1250–1300; Middle English fra(u)nkplegge < Anglo-French frauncplege. See frank1, pledge

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frankpledge (ˈfræŋkˌplɛdʒ)
 
n
1.  the corporate responsibility of members of a tithing for the good behaviour of each other
2.  a member of a tithing
3.  a tithing itself
 
[C15: via Anglo-French from Old French franc free (see frank) + plegepledge]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Encyclopedia Britannica
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frankpledge

system in medieval England under which all but the greatest men and their households were bound together by mutual responsibility to keep the peace. Frankpledge can be traced back to the laws of King Canute II the Great of Denmark and England (d. 1035), who declared that every man, serf or free, must be part of a hundred, a local unit of government, that could put up a surety in money for his good behaviour. By the 13th century, however, it was the unfree and landless men who were so bound. While a freeholder's land was sufficient pledge, the unfree had to be in frankpledge, generally an association of 12, or in tithing, an association of 10 householders. Frankpledge existed more commonly in the area under the Danelaw, from Essex to Yorkshire, whereas tithing was found in the south and southwest of England. In the area north of Yorkshire, the system does not appear to have been imposed. The system began to decline in the 14th century and was superseded by local constables operating under the justices of the peace in the 15th century.

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Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
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