city, Saxony Land (state), eastern Germany. It lies on the Freiberger Mulde River, at the northeastern foot of the Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge), southwest of Dresden. It was an early influential silver-mining community (founded c. 1190 and chartered early in the 13th century) and the source (1296-1307) of a mining code (Freiberger Stadtrecht), and its name is derived from the extensive mining rights that then belonged to the "free miner." Until the 16th century it was the largest city, economic centre, and mint of Saxony. The Reformation was introduced there in 1536 by Henry the Pious, who was then a resident. Freiberg suffered severely in the 17th century during the Thirty Years' War and again during the French occupation from 1806 to 1814.
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