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American social and political activist (b. Oct. 8, 1912, Los Angeles, Calif.-d. Feb. 16, 2002, Palo Alto, Calif.), had a more than half-century-long career of public service highlighted by his influence on education through his presidency of the philanthropic Carnegie Corporation of New York, by the introduction of Medicare during his years as secretary of health, education, and welfare, and by his efforts to reform the political system by increasing citizens' participation in government. To help bring about the latter, he founded (1970) and became the first chairman of Common Cause, a citizens' lobby that opposed the Vietnam War and promoted civil rights, campaign finance reform, and government accountability. Gardner studied psychology at Stanford University-dropping out for a year and a half to write fiction before earning bachelor's (1935) and master's (1936) degrees-and the University of California, Berkeley (Ph.D., 1938). He then taught psychology at Connecticut College and Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Mass.; served in the marines during World War II; and went to work for the Carnegie Corporation, becoming its chairman in 1955. In that post he was able to exert enormous influence over American educational policy by guiding the choice of the country's top educators. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award given in the U.S., in 1964. Impressed by Gardner's accomplishments, Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson in 1965 named him secretary of health, education, and welfare, a position he held until 1968. While secretary he planned the White House Fellows Program and introduced the Medicare and Medicaid federal health insurance programs. Gardner then served as chairman of the Urban Coalition to address racial problems in the cities, but he soon came to realize that the best way to effect change was to reform the political system from within and thus founded Common Cause. That organization attracted hundreds of thousands of members and was still making its presence felt in the 21st century. Gardner left the chairmanship of Common Cause in 1977 but remained in public life.