in vertebrates, the organs concerned with reproduction and urinary excretion. Although their functions are unrelated, the structures involved in excretion and reproduction are morphologically associated and often use common ducts. The major structures of the urinary system in mammals are the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The major structures of the reproductive system in males are the testes, sperm ducts, urethra, and penis; in females, they are the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina. See excretion; reproduction
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