a stick with a pointed or electrically charged end, for driving cattle, oxen, etc.; prod.
anything that pricks or wounds like such a stick.
something that encourages, urges, or drives; a stimulus.
verb (used with object)
to prick or drive with, or as if with, a goad; prod; incite.

before 900; Middle English gode, Old English gād; compare Langobardic gaida spearhead

goadlike, adjective
ungoaded, adjective

4. spur, push, impel.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
goad (ɡəʊd)
1.  a sharp pointed stick for urging on cattle, etc
2.  anything that acts as a spur or incitement
3.  (tr) to drive with or as if with a goad; spur; incite
[Old English gād, of Germanic origin, related to Old English gār, Old Norse geirr spear]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

O.E. gad "spearhead," from P.Gmc. *gaido (cf. Lombardic gaida "spear"), from PIE *ghai- (cf. Skt. hetih "missile, projectile," O.Ir. gae "spear"). Figurative use is since 16c., probably from the Bible. The verb is from 1579.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Bible Dictionary

Goad definition

(Heb. malmad, only in Judg. 3: 31), an instrument used by ploughmen for guiding their oxen. Shamgar slew six hundred Philistines with an ox-goad. "The goad is a formidable weapon. It is sometimes ten feet long, and has a sharp point. We could now see that the feat of Shamgar was not so very wonderful as some have been accustomed to think." In 1 Sam. 13:21, a different Hebrew word is used, _dorban_, meaning something pointed. The expression (Acts 9:5, omitted in the R.V.), "It is hard for thee to kick against the pricks", i.e., against the goad, was proverbial for unavailing resistance to superior power.

Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary
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Example sentences
This is what she wants, what she's tried to goad me to all evening.
It does not matter if they were trying to goad you or not.
Let me try to goad him, then, into answering a question for me.
Having nothing to contribute, your stock-in-trade is to try and goad people by
  making things personal.
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