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long-necked stringed instrument of the lute family. The gottuvadyam is a staple instrument of the Carnatic music tradition of India. It is similar to the vina in appearance and sound, although its fingerboard is not fretted. It has a pear-shaped wooden body, 6 main strings, and as many as 13 sympathetic strings. The gottuvadyam is played by moving a polished stone or a cylinder of wood or horn over the strings. Primarily played as a solo instrument, it is considered a very difficult instrument to master and requires a very delicate touch. The vicitra vina of northern India (a modern fretless variant of the vina) is built on the same principles as the gottuvadyam; it has, however, a lighter body, which gives it a less resonant tone