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grail

[greyl] /greɪl/
noun
1.
(usually initial capital letter). Also called Holy Grail. a cup or chalice that in medieval legend was associated with unusual powers, especially the regeneration of life and, later, Christian purity, and was much sought after by medieval knights: identified with the cup used at the Last Supper and given to Joseph of Arimathea.
2.
(sometimes initial capital letter) Informal. any greatly desired and sought-after objective; ultimate ideal or reward.
Origin
1300-1350
1300-50; Middle English graiel, graile, etc. < Anglo-French grahel, grayel, Old French gräel, grel < Medieval Latin gradālis platter, of uncertain origin
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for grails

Grail

/ɡreɪl/
noun
1.
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for grails

grail

n.

c.1300, "the Holy Grail," from Old French graal "Holy Grail, cup," earlier "large shallow dish," from Medieval Latin gradalis "a flat dish or shallow vessel," perhaps ultimately from Latin crater "bowl," from Greek krater "bowl, especially for mixing wine with water."

Holy Grail is anglicized from Middle English Sangreal (Saint graal), grafted awkwardly onto the Celtic Arthurian legends 12c. by Church scribes probably in place of some pagan otherworldly object. It was said to be the cup into which Joseph of Arimathea received the last drops of blood of Christ (according to the writers who picked up the thread of Chrétien de Troyes' "Perceval") or the dish from which Christ ate the Last Supper (Robert de Boron), and ultimately was identified as both (e.g. "þe dische wiþ þe blode," 14c.).

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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7
9
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