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a title of honour borne by the highest class of the Spanish nobility. The title appears first to have been assumed during the late Middle Ages by certain of the ricos hombres, or powerful magnates of the realm, who had by then acquired vast influence and considerable privileges, including one-that of wearing a hat in the king's presence-which later became characteristic of the dignity of grandee. The title was given a formal character in 1520 and, under Charles I (1516-56; Holy Roman emperor as Charles V), the number of grandees was limited to 25. This figure was later increased, and by the early 17th century the grandees of Spain had been divided into three classes: (1) those who spoke to the king and received his reply with their heads covered; (2) those who addressed him uncovered but put on their hats to hear his answer; and (3) those who awaited the permission of the king before covering themselves.