a U.S. legal-tender note, printed in green on the back since the Civil War, originally issued against the credit of the country and not against gold or silver on deposit.

1860–65, Americanism; green + back1 Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
greenback (ˈɡriːnˌbæk)
1.  informal (US) an inconvertible legal-tender US currency note originally issued during the Civil War in 1862
2.  slang (US) a dollar bill

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

"U.S. dollar bill," 1862, so called from the time of their introduction; bank paper money printed in green ink had been called this since 1778 (as opposed to redbacks, etc.).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
By your logic, the existence of counterfeit dollar bills would virtually
  preclude the existence of real greenbacks.
Because oil is traded in dollars, rising prices initially increase the demand
  for greenbacks.
The greenbacks might have been placed there by people who are more generous
  than yourself.
Topics include the silver question and post-war redemption of greenbacks.
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