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town, Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy, in the Po Valley, northeast of Parma. It was probably founded in the 7th century by the Lombards. In the 15th century it became the seat of a county that was granted to a branch of the Gonzaga family in 1539 and made a duchy in 1621. In 1746 Guastalla fell under Austrian domination and was incorporated with the Duchy of Parma. Detached from Parma and included in the Duchy of Modena in 1847, it joined the Kingdom of Italy in 1859.