|1.||Finnish name: Suomi a republic in N Europe, on the Baltic Sea: ceded to Russia by Sweden in 1809; gained independence in 1917; Soviet invasion successfully withstood in 1939--40, with the loss of Karelia; a member of the European Union. It is generally low-lying, with about 50 000 lakes, extensive forests, and peat bogs. Official languages: Finnish and Swedish. Religion: Christian, Lutheran majority. Currency: euro. Capital: Helsinki. Pop: 5 216 000 (2004 est). Area: 337 000 sq km (130 120 sq miles)|
|2.||Gulf of Finland an arm of the Baltic Sea between Finland, Estonia, and Russia|
Republic in northern Europe, bordered by the Gulf of Bothnia (an arm of the Baltic Sea) and Sweden to the west, Norway to the north, Russia to the east, and the Gulf of Finland (another arm of the Baltic) and the Baltic Sea to the south. Its capital and largest city is Helsinki.
Note: Despite centuries of cultural, political, and economic domination by the Russian empire and the former Soviet Union, Finland has managed to maintain an independent identity.
gulf of finland
easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea, between Finland (north) and Russia and Estonia (east and south). Covering an area of 11,600 square miles (30,000 square km), the gulf extends for 250 miles (400 km) from east to west but only 12 to 80 miles (19 to 130 km) from north to south. It has a maximum depth of 377 feet (115 m) at its western end. Of low salinity (six parts per thousand), the gulf freezes over for three to five months in winter. It receives the Neva and Narva rivers and the Saimaa Canal. Included within the gulf are the islands of Gogland (Sur-sari, or Hogland), Lavansari (Moshchnyy), and Kotlin (Kronshtadt). The gulf is an important shipping route for its main ports: Porkkala, Helsinki, and Kotka in Finland; Vyborg, St. Petersburg, and Kronshtadt in Russia; and Tallinn in Estonia.
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