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1760, from Spanish hacienda "landed estate, plantation," earlier facienda, from Latin facienda "things to be done," from facere "to do" (see factitious). For noun use of a Latin gerundive, cf. agenda. The owner of one is a hacendado.
The change of Latin f- to Spanish h- is characteristic; e.g. hablar from fabulari, hacer from facere, hecho from factum, hermoso from formosum. Confusion of initial h- and f- was common in 16c. Spanish; the conquistador is known in contemporary records as both Hernando and Fernando Cortés.