[ree-zuh-ning, reez-ning]
the act or process of a person who reasons.
the process of forming conclusions, judgments, or inferences from facts or premises.
the reasons, arguments, proofs, etc., resulting from this process.

1325–75; Middle English resoninge. See reason, -ing2

reasoningly, adverb
half-reasoning, adjective
nonreasoning, adjective
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
reasoning (ˈriːzənɪŋ)
1.  the act or process of drawing conclusions from facts, evidence, etc
2.  the arguments, proofs, etc, so adduced

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

early 13c., "statement in an argument," also "intellectual faculty that adopts actions to ends," from Anglo-Fr. resoun, O.Fr. raison, from L. rationem (nom. ratio) "reckoning, understanding, motive, cause," from ratus, pp. of reri "to reckon, think," from PIE base *rei- "to reason, count" (cf. O.E.
rædan "to advise; see read). Meaning "sanity" is recorded from, late 14c. The verb (c.1300) is from O.Fr. raisoner, from L.L. rationare "to discourse." Originally "to question (someone)," sense of "employ reasoning (with someone)" is from 1847, and that of "to think in a logical manner" is from 1590s. Phrase it stands to reason is from 1630s. Age of Reason "the Enlightenment" is first recorded 1794, as the title of Tom Paine's book.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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