"You canker blossom!" 3 Shakespearean Insults
Extra, redundant bits added to stored or transmitted data for the purposes of error detection and correction.
Named after the mathematician Richard Hamming, Hamming codes greatly improve the reliability of data, e.g. from distant space probes, where it is impractical, because of the long transmission delay, to correct errors by requesting retransmission.
[Detail? Connection with Hamming Distance?]