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German theologian and historian; he was recognized also for his scientific endeavours. In such seminal works as The History of Dogma (1886-89; 4th ed. 1909) and The History of Ancient Christian Literature (1893-1904), he argued that the relevance of Christianity to the modern world lay not in theological dogmatism but in the understanding of the religion as a historical development. He was ennobled (with the addition of von to his name) in 1914.