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island, Schleswig-Holstein Land (state), northwestern Germany. It lies in the German Bay (Deutsche Bucht) of the North Sea, in the angle between the coast of Schleswig-Holstein and the estuaries of the Jade, Weser, and Elbe rivers, 40 miles (65 km) offshore northwest of Cuxhaven. The 520-acre (210-hectare) island consists of a level, cliff-girded, red sandstone plateau, called the Oberland (184 feet [56 metres] at its highest point); a smaller, low sandy tract in the southeast, the Unterland, extended by reclamation; and a low sandy island 0.25 mile (0.4 km) east, called Dune. Geological and historical evidence suggest that Helgoland and Dune are the last remnants of a single island whose periphery in AD 800 was about 120 miles (190 km). Continuous wave attack on the cliffs and a rise in sea level or fall in land level had reduced the island's periphery to about 8 miles (13 km) by 1649. It has an oceanic climate with mild winter temperatures.