in astronomy, a constellation of the Northern Hemisphere, at about 10 hours 40 minutes right ascension (the coordinate on the celestial sphere analogous to longitude on the Earth) and 56 north declination (angular distance north of the celestial equator). It was referred to in the Old Testament (Job 9:9; 38:32) and mentioned by Homer in the Iliad (xviii, 487). The Greeks identified this constellation with the nymph Callisto, who was placed in the heavens by Zeus in the form of a bear together with her son Arcas as "bear keeper," or Arcturus; the Greeks named the constellation Arctos, the she-bear, or Helice, from its turning around Polaris, the Pole Star. The Romans knew the constellation as Arctos or Ursa. Ptolemy cataloged eight of the constellation's stars. Of these, the seven brightest constitute one of the most characteristic figures in the northern sky; the group has received various names-Septentriones, the Wagon, Plow, Big Dipper, and Charles's Wain. For the Hindus these seven stars represented the seven Rishis (or Sages). Two of the constellation's stars, Dubhe and Merak, are called the pointers because the line Merak-Dubhe points to the Pole Star.
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