city, Lower Saxony Land (state), north-central Germany, east of Braunschweig (Brunswick). Probably founded in the 9th century, it was chartered in 1050, joined the Hanseatic League in 1426, and passed to Brunswick in 1490. In 1576 Julius, duke of Brunswick, founded a university there that became one of the chief seats of Protestant learning in the 17th century; closed in 1810 by Jerome, king of Westphalia, it was incorporated into the University of Gottingen.
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