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velayat (province) in western Afghanistan, 23,668 sq mi (61,301 sq km) in area, with its capital at Herat city. It is bounded by Iran (west), by Turkmenistan and the Afghan province of Badghisat (north), by Ghowr Province (east), and by Farah Province (south). Herat is relatively flat except in the east, where the western outliers of the Hindu Kush range penetrate; the largest of these is the Selseleh-ye Safid Kuh (Paropamisus Range). The province is traversed from east to west by the Harirud (river), along which most of the people live in agricultural oases. The capital, located in the largest oasis, is a centre of Afghan trade with Iran and Turkmenistan and is connected by roads with the neighbouring provinces.