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city, Williamson county, southern Illinois, U.S. It lies about 15 miles (25 km) northeast of Carbondale. Settled in 1816, Herrin was a coal-mining centre from the 1890s to the 1930s. On June 22, 1922, the city was the scene of a tragic labour dispute known as the Herrin Massacre. The country's coal fields were closed by strikes, and, when a mining company attempted to operate a strip mine with nonunion labour, several hundred striking union miners forced the nonunion workers to surrender and promised them safe conduct. After being marched to a point near Herrin, the captives were ordered to run for their lives under fire; some 20 people were killed, and others were wounded. Although a grand jury returned numerous indictments for murder and other offenses, all of the defendants were acquitted. Also during the 1920s, Herrin suffered violence related to bootlegging and the Ku Klux Klan, helping the county earn the notorious nickname "Bloody Williamson."